Before Nepal's emergence as a nation in the later half of the 18th century, the designation 'Nepal' was largely applied only to the Kathmandu Valley and its surroundings. Thus, up to the unification of the country, Nepal's recorded history is largely that of the Kathmandu Valley. References to Nepal in famous Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata, Puranas and also Buddhist and Jain scriptures, establish the country's antiquity as an independent political and territorial entity. The Vamshavalis or chronicles, the oldest of which was written during the 14th century, are the only fairly reliable basis for Nepal's ancient history. The Vamshavalis mention the rule of several dynasties the Gopalas, the Abhiras and the Kiratas over a stretch of centuries. However, no extant historical evidence has yet authenticated the rule of these legendary dynasties. The documented history of Nepal begins with the Changu Narayan temple inscription of King Manadeva I of the Lichavi dynasty, Malla Dynasty and Shah Dynasty, Unification of Nepal
Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape, 800 kilometres (497 mi) long and 200 kilometres (124 ) wide, with an area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). See List of territories by size for the comparative size of Nepal. It lies between latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and 89°E. Barun Valley – There are many such valleys in the Himalaya created by glacier flows. Kali Gandaki Gorge, the deepest gorge on earth. Nepal is commonly divided into three physio graphic areas.
Himalayan Region The Northern part of Nepal is covered with snow clad mountains tops. It
covers about 16% of the total area of the kingdom. The hills above
5,000 m. are all snow covered. There are several ranges in this region
including Annapurna, Mahalangur, and Kubakarna etc and there are deep
and narrow basins between these Himalayan ranges. The Himalayan ranges
are famous for having various important peaks like Mt. Everest,
Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Langtang, Dhaulagiri etc. Hilly Region The hilly region covers the half of the total area of the kingdom
67%. It lies between the Terai and the Himalayan region. The Mahabharata
range lies in this region and it is 6oo m. to 3000 m. from sea level.
Mahabharata range is 1500 ti 3000 m. high. It lies in the middle part of
the region and contains very important valleys like Kathmandu and
Pokhara. Terai Region The southern part of Nepal
contains a broad belt of lowland and flat land known as the Terai
Region. The Terai, including inner Terai, extended from east to west and
is about 17% of the total area of the kingdom. In the north of this
region the Shivalik range extended form west to east and contains
stones, pebbles mixed with sand.
Climate of Nepal is roughly divided into five types:
|Sub Tropical Monsoon Climate||This climate is found up to the altitude of 1,200 m. With heat and dampness. The summer temperature never falls below 15 c.|
|Temperate Monsoon Climate||It occurs between 1,200 to 2,100 m. of altitude. Winter are cold to sever but summer is warm. The temperature varies between 0 c. to 38 c. and average annual rainfall is 150 cm.|
|Cool Temperate Climate||It occurs between 2,100 to 3,300m. It is warm in summer and cold in winter.|
|Alpine Climate||The great Himalayas have an Alpine Climate with considerable dryness, which occurs between 3,300 to 5,000 m. of altitude. In this climate the winter 5,000 m. of altitude. In this climate the winter temperature is mostly below freezing point and summer temperature approximately 15 c. and rainfall is 50 cms. , mostly in form of snow.|
|Tundra Climate||This type of climate is very cold throughout the year. It occurs between 3,500 to 5,00m. There is always snow above 5,000m.|
According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the total population of Nepal was 26,427,99 in 2007. The population comprises people of more than 100 multiple ethnic groups who speak about 93 different languages and dialects which are further divided into different castes. The distinction in caste still plays a significant part in a Nepali’ life when it comes to marriage. Some of the main ethnic groups are: Gurungs and Magars who live mainly in the western region; Rais, Limbus and Sunwars who live in the eastern middle hills; Sherpas, Manangbas and Lopas who live near the mountains of Everest, Annapurna and Mustang respectively; Newars who live in and around the Kathmandu valley; Tharus, Yadavas, Satar, Rajvanshis and Dhimals who live in the Tarai region; and Brahmins, Chhetris and Thakuris generally spread over all parts of the country. Nepali is the official language of the state, spoken and understood by almost all the people of Nepal. English is spoken by many in government and business offices. It is the mode of education in most private schools of Kathmandu and some other cities.
The overwhelming majority of the Nepalese population follows Hinduism. Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country. Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple, the Pashupatinath Temple, where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to mythology, Sita Devi of the epic Ramayana was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King Janaka Raja. Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Traditionally it is held to be the birthplace in about 563 B.C. of Siddhartha Gautama, a Kshatriya caste prince of the Sakya clan, who, as the Buddha Gautama, gave birth to the Buddhist tradition. The Buddha, born as a Hindu, is also said to be a descendant of Vedic Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. How ever people of Nepal do follow Christianity, Muslim religion and other.
Nepal is very rich in Culture, Tradition and Festivals. Nepal comprises of more than hundreds of festival according to the ethic groups and religion basically Hindu and Buddhist. Almost all the festivals are practiced with traditional music and dance, as well as all different kinds of local delicacies. During festival time mostly different types of Nepali foods are consumed with relatives and community members. Gathering is taken as a part of festival and more number means big and superior celebration. For details information ..... Festivals in Nepal.
Nepali currency is name as Rupee. Rupees come with Rs.1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 adorned on the notes and coins in 25 paisa, 50 paisa, 1 rupee, 5 rupee and 10 rupee coins. You can exchange your currency in Hotels, Money exchange and Bank with commission deducted for the money exchange at Nepal currency exchange rate. Working hour starts from 10.00 am to 3.30 pm Sundays 10.00 am to 12.00 pm on Fridays. Saturday is weekend holiday. All major cards are accepted for tourist services. There is usually a 5% mark-up on top of the price.
By Air: Tribhuvan Internaitonal Airport, Kathmandu 1310m.
By Land: (1) Kakarbhitta (2) Birgunj (3) Belhiya (Bhairahawa) (4) Nepalgunj (5) Dhangadi (6) Jogbani (Biratnagar) and (7) Mahendra Nagar in Nepal-lndia border and Kodari in Nepal-China border. The overland tourists entering the Kingdom with their vehicles must possess an international carnet.
Visa can be obtained on arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, at border entry points in Kakadvitta, Birgunj, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Gaddachowki on Nepal-India border and Kodari on Nepal-China border. Nepalese diplomatic missions and consulates abroad provide the visa in Nepal. It can be extended at the Department of Immigration, Kalikasthan, and Kathmandu. Kids under the age of ten years require no Visa fee. Interested travelers are requested to fill a visa form with passport photograph. So, please download form from the link and get ready while you are passing through the immigration Point.
Multiple entry 15 days - US$ 25 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry 30 days - US$ 40 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple entry 90 days - US$ 100 or equivalent convertible currency
Tourist Visa Extension
Tourist visa can be extended for a maximum period of 150 days in a single visa year (January – December).
Airport tax is included in you ticket while issuing your ticket.
1. Annapurna Conservation Area Rs. 2000.00 per person.
2. Makalu Barun Conservation Area Rs. 2000.00 per person.
3. Manaslu Conservation Area Rs. 2000.00 per person.
4. Langtang National Park Rs. 3000.00 per person.
5. Sagarmatha (Everest) National Park Rs.3000.00 per person.
6. Rara National Park Rs.1000.00 per person.
7. Shey Phoksundo National Park Rs.1000.00 per person.
8. Chitwan National Park Rs.1000.00 per person.
9. Bardia National Park Rs.1000.00 per person.
10. Shivapuri Conservation Area Rs.500.00 per person.
Restricted Area Permit Fees
1. Areas of Lower Dolpa US$ 10 per week per person.
2. Upper Dolpa US$ 500 per person for 10 days and additional US$ 50 per day per person
3. Kanchenjunga Areas US$ 10 per week per person
4. Upper Mustang US$ 500 per person for 10 days and additional US$ 50 per day per person
5. Manaslu Area (Sept-Nov) US$ 70 per person for 7 days and additional US$ 10 per day per person
(Dec-Aug) US$ 50 per person for 7 days and additional US$ 7 per day per person
6. Tsum Valley (Sept-Nov) US$ 35 per person for 8 days
(Dec-Aug) US$ 25 per person for 8 days
7. Gaurishanker US$ 10 per week per person
8. Humla/ Limi Valley US$ 50 per person for 7 days and additional US$ 7 per day per person
9. Makalu US$ 10 per week per person for 1st 4 weeks and additional 20$ per week per Person.
10. Parphu valley (Sept-Nov) US$ 90 per week per person
(Dec-Aug) US$ 75 per week per person
Illegal trekking operators are increasing rapidly in Nepal resulting imbalance in tourism industry. Being responsible trekking agency we would like to request our travelers to take services only from government authorized trekking agency for your safety and security.
some of the Nepalese trekking guides are randomly operating trekking, this is completely against the tourism law and makes you pay for the trouble. Nepalese guides who are unknown of existing law of tourism are found on the route without having any insurance for himself and other staffs. Only registered trekking agency can provide insurance to staffs and staffs. Guide having no insurance cannot secure your journey. In case of any theft or loss you cannot complain to any governmental security sectors since, you're status is already illegal and even he / she cannot provide the emergency evacuation from the route, when you get hurt or any incident occurs. Therefore we request you to travel through the registered company and say "NO" to illegal trek.2. Hotels:
Many hotels are providing services to trekkers, but according to the existing law of tourism hotels are not allowed to sell any travel services to the travelers. Buying services from the hotels are like trekking with individuals without and authorization from government making your trip illegal. Trekkers with FIT status can travel alone carrying their luggage but if you need any support from individuals like porter and guide you must go through registered trekking agency.3. Tour leaders:
Noways many foreign trekkers " Tour Leaders" are organizing certain group in their respective countries and traveling without taking any services from the authorized agency and without paying any tax to the government. According to the legal law of tourism no foreign people can organize trekking without having connection to regular trekking agencies of Nepal. If there is any trouble with the trekkers this tour leaders cannot organize emergency evacuation during the trek.